Contemporary artists continue to experiment with pattern. Many use pattern to play with the conventions of painting and to add meaning to their work. Mickalene Thomas includes contemporary and traditional designs in her 2009 portrait of her mother to place her work within the context of Western art. Fred Tomaselli uses a collage technique to create repeating patterns and a chaotic mood, and to experiment with balance in After Nov. 19, 2013. In Benjamin Degen’s Rip Van, the artist layers geometric shapes to render a city skyline, adding a sense of depth to the scene.